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The Myth of the Subjectless Sentence

The very first time they present an apparently subjectless sentence, all Japanese language textbooks should have large warnings printed in red: You Are Now Entering the Twilight Zone It is here, more than anywhere else, that the language suddenly begins ...
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All About Japanese Particles: に (ni) – 2

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: Ni commnly follows darō, deshō, and V-tarō, and essentially has the same meaning as no ni (#30, no. ), although the latter is more common. 1. Expresses regret that something is over and can't ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ものか (mono ka)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: Men tend to use the forms mono ka and mon ka, women mono desu ka and  mon desu ka. 1. Emphasizes a determination not to do something by means of a rhetorical question. あんな所、もう行くもんか。 ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ぞ (zo)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: Zo adds force to a sentence in a more emphatic manner than ze (#66). Used mostly by men. 1. Indicates a command or threat. そろそろ会議を始めるぞ。 Sorosoro kaigi o hajimeru zo. Let's get the meeting ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ぜ (ze)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: Adds force to a sentence. When it overlaps with zo (#67), it is somewhat less emphatic. Ze is used mostly by men. 1. Used to make a declaration to someone or underscore a point ...
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All About Japanese Particles: もの (mono)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: The primary meaning of mono as a sentence-ending particle is "because" or "the reason is,", and in the individual usages below, with their special connotations, this meaning is still vaguely felt. 1. Indicates an ...
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All About Japanese Particles: い (-i)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] 1. Following da or ka, indicates an informal question. Used mostly by men. どうして新宿まで行ったんだい。 Dō shite Shinjuku made itta-n dai. Why'd you go as far as [all the way to] Shinjuku? 昨日どこで飲んだんだい。 Kinō doko de ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ってば (-tteba)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] 1. Indicates annoyance with another person. 明日までにできなければ困るってば。 Ashita made ni dekinakereba komaru-tteba. I'm telling you, there's going to be trouble if it's not done by tomorrow. 来年では遅すぎるってば。 Rainen de wa ososugiru-tteba. Next year will be ...
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All About Japanese Particles: っけ (-kke)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: -Kke follows V-ta and Adj-ta forms. In feminine speech, the verbs forms tend to be desu, deshita, and V-mashita. 1. Indicates a muted question in cases when there is information shared with an interlocutor ...
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All About Japanese Particles: こと (koto)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] Note: Koto, as a sentence ending particle, is used mainly by women. 1. Indicates emotion. この花の色の美しいこと。 Kono hana no iro no utsukushii koto. What an exquisite color this flower has! 美味しいお料理ですこと。 Oishii oryōri desu koto ...
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All About Japanese Particles: さ (sa)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] 1. Softens an assertion. Used mostly by men. 明日の高橋さんのパーティーには、もちろん行くさ。 Ashita no Takahashi-san no pātī ni wa, mochiron iku sa. I'm going to Takahashi's party tomorrow, of course. それより、こっちのセーターの方が大きいさ。 Sore yori, kotchi no sētā no hō ...
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All About Japanese Particles: な (na)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles] 1. Indicates emotion. Mostly used by men. Note: Na in this usage is often lengthened to nā. あの人はすばらしいなあ。 Ano hito wa subarashii nā. She's really great [something]! きれいな星だなあ。 Kirei na hoshi da nā. What a ...
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