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All About Japanese Particles: だけ (dake)

1. Indicates an absolute quantitative limit with the connotation that the amount is small: "only, just." 昨日クラスに来た学生は、5人だけでした。 Kinō kurasu ni kita gakusei wa, gonin dake deshita. Only five students came to class yesterday. 今日は1時間だけテレビを見ました。 Kyō wa ichi-jikan dake terebi o ...
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All About Japanese Particles: のみ (nomi)

*1. After nouns, indicates that there is nothing other than the thing(s) stipulated : "only." Note: In this usage, nomi and dake have the same meaning, but nomi is used more in writing than in the spoken language. Nomi can ...
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All About Japanese Particles: しか (shika)

Note: Shika is used only with negative verbs. It may combine with (follow) dake, nomi, and kiri for further emphasis. 1. After nouns, indicates there is nothing more than the quantity specified, with the connotation that the quantity is small ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ばかり (bakari)

Note: More informal forms of bakari are bakkari, bakashi, and bakkashi 1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast to kurai and hodo, bakari tends (but only tends) to focus on the smallness of the amount: "approximately, about." Note: ...
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All About Japanese Particles: ほど (hodo)

1. Indicates an approximate amount or approximate maximum extent; in contrast with kurai and bakari, hodo tends to stress approximate upper limit: "approximately, about." Note: Kurai (#19, no.1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace hodo in this usage, although ...
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All About Japanese Particles: くらい ‐ ぐらい (kurai – gurai)

1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast with hodo and bakari, kurai denotes an approximate quantity without connoting its upper or lower limits: "approximately, about." Note: Hodo (#20, no. 1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace kurai ...
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All About Japanese Particles: を (o)

1. Indicates the object of an action (direct object). 夕べは映画を見た。 Yūbe wa eiga o mita. I saw a movie yesterday evening. 原田さんは手紙を書いている。 Harada-san wa tegami o kaite iru. Harada is writing a letter. 2. Indicates the direct object of a ...
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All About Japanese Particles: の (no)

I. Used between two nouns, indicating that the first possesses or is modifying the second; also used in place of ga to indicate the subject in modifying clauses. 1. Indicates possession: "'s." これは高木さんの傘です。 Kore wa Takagi-san no kasa desu. This ...
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All About Japanese Particles: まで (made)

1. Indicates a time limitation for actions or events (often paired with kara): "until, till, to." この会社の社員は9時から5時まで働きます。 Kono kaisha no shain wa kuji kara goji made hatarakimasu. The employees of this company work from nine o'clock till five o'clock. このデパートは、土曜日と日曜日は8時までです。 ...
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All About Japanese Particles: から (kara)

I. Follows nouns and the -te form of verbs: "from." 1. After nouns, indicates the time at which something begins: "from, at." 銀行は9時から開いています。 Ginkō wa kuji kara aite imasu. Banks are open from nine o'clock. / Banks open at nine ...
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All About Japanese Particles: へ (e)

Note: In both of the usages below, ni may replace e, except when e is followed by no (as in the last sentence of no. 2) 1. Indicates a direction or goal, or a destination toward which one is moving ...
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All About Japanese Particles: に (ni)

1. Indicates where a person or thing is: "in, at, on." a) Indicates a concrete place. 山田先生は、今図書館にいらっしゃいます。    Yamada-sensei wa, ima tosho-kan ni irasshaimasu. Professor Yamada is in the library now. 電話帳は机の上にあります。 Denwa-chō wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu. The phone ...
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