Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

1. て (te)

2. で (de)

3. から (kara)

4. ので (node)

5. もので (mono de)

1. て (te)

As the connection between two clauses, the て form of adjectives and verbs can indicate a reason at the end of the first clause in a sentence. Note that the て form can also mean “and” (see here). Telling the difference depends on reading the context correctly. English equivalents:‘because,” “since,” “so.”

i) みちんでい、6時までに空港くうこうくのは無理むりだ。

The roads are crowded, so it’s impossible to get to the airport by 6:00.

ii) あそこはいまゆきおおあるいていけませんよ。

Right now the snow is heavy there, so you can’t go (get there) on foot.

2. で (de)

Following nouns, indicates that the noun is the reason for the situation given in the following verb. で can sometimes be made softer in tone by converting it into ので (4) or more direct by replacing it with から (3). English equivalent: “due to”, “owing to”, “because of”…

i) はやしさんは、病気びょうき先週せんしゅうから会社かいしゃやすんでいます。

Because Hayashi-san has been ill, he has been away from the office since last week. 

ii) 今朝けさは、事故じこ電車でんしゃが1時間じかんまった。

This morning, due to an accident, the train stopped running for a whole hour. 

3. から (kara)

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Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

1a-b. か (ka)

2. かな (kana)

3. かしら (kashira)

4. の (no)

5. って (tte)

1a. か (ka)

Indicates a question at the end of a sentence. Its tone has the politeness expected in everyday conversation with strangers or social superiors, in contrast to the casualness indicated by particles 2, 5.

i)

山本:最近さいきん仕事しごとはいかがいです

竹下:以前いぜんほど順調じゅんちょうではないですね。

Yamamoto: How is work going these days?

Takeshita: Not as smoothly as before.

ii)

京子:昨日きのう試合しあい、どっちがったんです

直美:もちろんAチームですよ。

Kyoko: Who won yesterday’s game?

Naomi: The A team, of course.

1b. か (ka)

Indicating a question, doubt, or uncertainty in mid-sentence.

i)

今日きょう風邪かぜいたのあさからのどがいたい。

Maybe I’ve caught a cold—I’ve had a sore throat today since morning.

ii)

明日あした会合かいごう何人なんにんるの、わからない。

I don’t know how many people are coming to tomorrow’s gathering.

2. かな (kana)

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Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

1.に/へ (ni/e)

2.から (kara)

3.から…まで (kara…made)

4.より (yori)

1.に/へ (ni/e)

Indicates the direction toward which something is moving. In this sense に and へ are  interchangeable . English equivalent: “to.”

i) あるいてえききます。

I will walk to the station.

ii) 銀座ぎんざに/へくには、地下鉄ちかてつ便利べんりでしょう。

The subway is probably most convenient to go to Ginza.

iii) 柳田やなぎださんメールをおくった。

I sent an email to Yanagida-san.

iv) 明日あした何時なんじ空港くうこう行けばいいんですか。

What time should I be at (go to) the airport tomorrow?

2.から (kara)

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Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

1. と (to)

2. も (mo)

3. も…も (mo…mo)

4. や

5. や…や…など (ya…ya…nado)

6. に (ni)

7. とか (toka)

8. やら (yara)

9. て (te)

10a-b. たり…たり (-tari…-tari)

11. ては (tewa)

1. と (to)

Indicates a connection between nouns that form a list of two or more items.  The list is complete ; that is, there are no other items that could be added to it (which contrasts to some of the other particles given in this section, which present partial lists that could be added to if the speaker chose to do so). に (6) is similar to と in that it presents a complete list, but it has a more formal sound to it. English equivalent “and.”

i) 教室きょうしつには先生せんせい生徒せいとがいます。

There are students and a teacher in the classroom.

ii) 大統領だいとうりょう副大統領ふくだいとうりょうがその会議かいぎ出席しゅっせきした。

The President and the Vice President attended that meeting.

2. も (mo)

Indicates that the noun it follows is connected (or similar) in some way to something else already mentioned. The first item was not followed by も; the second item is. Compare this with も• • •も (3), where both of the items to be mentioned are given in the same sentence and each is followed by も. English equivalent: “also,” “too.”

i) 山田やまださんは、来月らいげつ米国べいこくきます。私ちかいうちにくつもりです。

Yamada-san is going to the United States next month. I also plan to go before long.

ii)

弘子:明日のコンサート、香来るの?

美穂:香は来ないわ。

Hiroko: Is Kaori also coming to the concert tomorrow?

Miho: No, she won’t be coming.

3. も…も (mo…mo)

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Japanese Particles Indicating Place

japanese particles indicating place

japanese particles indicating place

1. で (de)

2. に (ni)

3. の (no)

4. へ/に (he/ni)

1. で (de)

Indicates the place  where an action takes place . Compare this with に (2c), which has a similar function with a limited number of verbs. English equivalent: “at,” “in.”

i) 毎日まいにち朝食ちょうしょくいえべます。

I eat breakfast at home every day.

ii) 山田やまださんは、銀座ぎんざのデパートはたらいています。

Yamada-san works at a department store in Ginza.

iii) 第1回目だいいっかいめのオリンピックは、ギリシャひらかれました。

The first Olympiad was held in Greece.

で (de) is also used when the place referred to is not a physical location (e.g., a conference room) so much as an occasion or situation (e.g, a conference).

i) 田村たむら議員ぎいんが、議会ぎかい質問しつもんした。

Assembly-person Tamura asked a question in the Assembly/Parliament.

ii) 私は、あの会社の面接めんせつ、うまくこたえられなかったので、入社にゅうしゃできないかもしれない。

At the employment interview for that company, I wasn’t able to answer the questions very well, so I may not be accepted (may not be able to join the company).

2a. に (ni)

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Japanese Particles Indicating Time

Japanese Particles Indicating Time

Japanese Particles Indicating Time

1. に (ni)

2. から (kara)

3. まで

4. までに

5. から…まで (kara … made)

6. より (yori)

7. ほど (hodo)

8. くらい, ぐらい (kurai, gurai)

9. ころ, ごろ (koro, goro)

10. ばかり (bakari)

1. に (ni)

Used after words indicating the  specific point in time  (e.g., “three o’clock”) at which—or a  interval  (e.g., “one week”) during which—an action takes place. English equivalent: “at.”

i) 明日あした会議会議は3時はじまります。

Tomorrow’s meeting will start at 3:00.

 ii) 1週間しゅうかん1かいピアノのレッスンにきます。

I go to have a piano lesson once a week.

Some words that indicate time do not take に (ni). For example,

Days (): yesterday (昨日きのう), today (今日きょう), tomorrow (明日あした)

Weeks (しゅう): last week (先週せんしゅう), this week (今週こんしゅう), next week (来週らいしゅう)

Months (つき): last month (先月せんげつ), this month (今月こんげつ), next month (来月らいげつ)

   i) 今週こんしゅうさむおおい。

There have been a lot of cold days this week.

  ii) 来月らいげつ海外旅行かいがいりょこうく。

I’m going to make a trip abroad next month.

Some words indicating time can either take に (ni) or not take it. For example,

Seasons (季節きせつ): spring (はる), summer (なつ),  fall (あき), winter (ふゆ)

   i) ふゆは東京に行きますが、なつにハワイに行きます。

I’ll be in Tokyo in winter, but I will go to Hawaii in summer.

  ii) 去年きょねんあき韓国かんこくにいました。

I was in Korea last fall.

2. から(kara)

Indicates

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Particle types in Japanese

Particle types in Japanese

It is possible to classify particles into case particles, focus particles, conjunctional particles, and sentence-final particles.

Particle types in Japanese

1. Case particles

Case particles usually follow nouns and express the function of the noun in the sentence or in the phrase. More specifically, they express the relationship between nouns, or between a noun and a verb or an adjective. Case particles include ga, o, ni, no, de, e, kara, made, to, ya, and ka.

ちちおとうとしかりました。
Chichi ga otōto o shikarimashita.
My father scolded my little brother.

友達ともだちいもうと来ました。
Watashi no tomodachi no imōto ga kimashita.
My friend’s younger sister came (here).

2. Focus particles

Focus particles follow words and another particle in order to focus on the entity denoted by the word and express sentence-external information such as the speaker’s knowledge, understanding, mood, attitude, and perspective. Focus particles include wa, mo, bakari, sae, demo, dake, shika, shi, and koso.

カラオケによく行きます。 居酒屋いざかやよく行きます。
Karaoke ni wa yoku ikimasu. Izakaya ni mo yoku ikimasu.
I go to karaoke very often. I also go to izakaya very often.

一万円しかありません。
Ichiman’en shika arimasen.
I have only 10,000 yen.

3. Conjunctional particles

Conjunctional particles follow phrases and clauses and conjoin verbs and adjectives or create adverbial phrases/clauses. Conjunctional particles include te, tari, tara, to, ka, ba, node, noni, kara, and ga.

昨日きのう飲んました。
Kinō wa tabete nonde nemashita.
I ate, drank, and slept yesterday.

明日の天気てんきはどうわかりません、たぶんれる思います。
Ashita no tenki wa dō ka wakarimasen ga, tabun hareru to omoimasu.
I’m not sure about tomorrow’s weather, but I think that it will probably be fine.

タバコは身体しんたいわるのでやめました。
Tabako wa karada ni warui node, yamemashita.
Cigarettes are not good for health, so I quit.

4. Sentence-final particles

Sentence-final particles are placed at the end of a sentence and specify the function of the sentence or show the speaker’s mood, attitude, or subtle implications. Sentence-final particles include ka, ne, yo, and na.

いいです
Ii desu ka. (question)
Is it okay?

あの人はきれいです
Ano hito wa kirei desu ne. (seeking agreement)
That person is pretty, isn’t she?

これは駄目だめです
Kore wa dame desu yo. (emphasis)
This one is not good.

あめかな
Ame wa furu kana. (speculation)
I wonder whether it will rain.

MASAHIRO TANIMORI – ERIKO SATO

Newborn Baby Congratulations Messages and Wishes in Japanese

Newborn Baby Congratulations Messages and Wishes in Japanese

Newborn Baby Congratulations Messages and Wishes in Japanese

安産あんざんでおめでとうございます。
Goanzan de omedeto gozaimasu.
Congratulations on the birth of your child.

This is the standard formal expression for congratulating the mother of a newborn baby or any of the immediate family. Such congratu-lations are traditionally regarded as falling within the domain of conversation among women—the mother of the child and her female well-wishers. In the past it was customary to wait until the mother had completely recovered from the delivery (up to a month or so after the actual birth) to call on her and offer congratulations, but these days felicitous sentiments are commonly expressed less for-mally, usually over the telephone. A typical example of informal congratulations from a woman might go:

おめでとう。よくがんばったわね。ゆっくりからだやすめて、はやく赤ちゃんのかおを見せてちょうだいね。
Omedetou. Yoku gambatta wa ne. Yukkuri karada o yasumete, hayaku akachan no kao o misete choudai ne.

Congratulations! It must have been hard. Take good care of your-self now, and let us see the baby real soon!

When you see the new baby for the first time, you’ll be expected to note a specific resemblance to one parent or the other, or perhaps to remark on some praiseworthy facial feature. In this situation, the following expressions may come in handy.

くちもとが きりっとして、お利口りこうそう。
Kuchimoto ga kiritto shite, orikousou.
Looks like quite an intelligent baby, with that determined-look-ing mouth.

おかさまにて、やさしそうな顔立かおだちね。
Okasama ni nite, yasashisou na kaodachi ne.
She looks like her mother, with those gentle features.

おとうさまに似て、おとこらしい顔だちですね。
Otousama ni nite, otokorashii kaodachi desu ne.
He looks like his father, with those masculine features.

目鼻めはなちがはっきりして、しっかりした赤ちゃんだこと。
Mehanadachi ga hakkiri shite, shikkari shita akachan da koto.
Such a fine-featured little face. That’s certainly a healthy-look-ing child.

人形にんぎょうさんみたい。
Oningyo-san mitai.
She (He) looks like a little doll.

While there are certain descriptive terms, like marumaru to (“chubby”) and tama no you (“like a perfect little gem”), that are still apt to be applied to baby boys rather than baby girls, it is no longer generally considered appropriate, as it was in the past, to suggest that the birth of a male heir is a more auspicious event than that of a girl.

How to Avoid Saying “You” in Japanese

How to Avoid Saying You in Japanese

Anata (あなた) translates as “you,” but its use is generally avoided. One exception is when wives call their husbands anata; then it has the special meaning of “darling.”

my wife

When talking to someone, you can be safe and say his or her name, with the suffix –san(さん), every time you want to say “you.”

Otherwise, refer to teachers, doctors, speakers, and government officials as sensei, and higher ranking members in your company by their titles. For example, if you want to ask your division manager what he plans to do, say Buchou wa do nasaimasu ka? (部長はどうなさいますか?)

okusan obama

How do you address the wife of a friend or the married woman next door? You can use either her last name, or if you need to make the distinction between her and her husband, you can call her okusan(奥さん).

The Top 11 Mistakes Japanese Language Beginners Make

The Top 11 Mistakes Japanese Language Beginners Make

The Top 11 Mistakes Japanese Language Beginners Make

Do these things only if you want to be seen as a newbie!

1. Use –san when referring to oneself.
Never, never do this.

2. Write: konnichi wa with a hiragana wa
The word konnichi wa (hello) uses the hiragana ha. In this case it is a particle pronounced as wa and not the regular hiragana for wa. Be careful with the particle は (pronounced wa) and the hiragana わ wa.

3. Use English vowels sounds.
Get the five vowel sounds down pat. English has something like fifteen vowel sounds but
Japanese only has five. Trying to fit those sounds into Japanese just leads to bad pronunciation habits.

4. Use English consonant sounds.
While the sounds in Japanese are mostly easy to learn for the English speaker, work hard at nailing down tsu and the R’s: ra, ri, ru, re, ro.

5. Ignore long vowels and double consonants.
Pay attention to long (in duration) vowels. hoshi (star) is not the same thing as hoshii (to want) even if to the English ear it sounds the same at first. Make the “i” long in duration. And double consonants are important too: kite (please come) and kitte (postage stamp).

6. Use your best American accent.
In most cases, Japanese sentences and words are unaccented. Don’t say, “ariGAtou

7. Impress your host mother by saying her baby is scary.
Be careful with easily confused words like kowai (scary) and kawaii (cute). Never tell a new mother that her baby looks kowai. [ushi (cow) / oishii (delicious); kudasai (please give) /kusai (stinky)]

8. Write “minna-san
Use minna (everyone) or mina-san (also means “everyone”), but minna-san is not used.

9. Overuse pronouns.
Saying “anata” (you) too often can come across as abrupt. In most cases, you can drop the pronoun or subject once it has been introduced.

10. To be a real Japanese master say “sayounara” instead of the loan-word “bai bai.”
“Sayounara” isn’t used as often as you may think. Use it when you are going away for a long time and may not see that person again. If you expect to see someone soon, use “mata ne” or “bai bai.”

11. Omitting “私は” too excessively.
First person 私は is usually omitted in Japanese. In Japanese, it is natural to omit subject. However, it is only when it is obvious who the subject is.

Clay & Yumi Boutwell