All About Japanese Particles: だけ (dake)

1. Indicates an absolute quantitative limit with the connotation that the amount is small: “only, just.”

昨日クラスに来た学生は、5だけでした。
Kinō kurasu ni kita gakusei wa, gonin dake deshita.
Only five students came to class yesterday.

今日は1時間だけテレビを見ました。
Kyō wa ichi-jikan dake terebi o mimashita.
Today I watched TV for only an hour.

2. Indicates an extent or amount: “as … as.”

どうぞお好きなだけお飲みください。
Dōzo osuki na dake onomi kudasai.
Please drink as much as you wish.

できるだけ早く行きます。
Dekiru dake hayaku ikimasu.
I’ll go [be on my way, leave, get there] as soon as I can. (Lit., To the extent that I can, I will go quickly.)

*3. In the phrases dake ni, dake atte, and dake no koto wa aru, indicates the cause or precondition for a certain result or state of affairs (when the result meets expectations, does not meet expectations, or is considered a natural outcome).

a) When the result meets expectations and is therefore worth the effort of achieving: “… was worthwhile.”

あの大学に合格できたから、勉強しただけのことはあった。
Ano daikagu ni gōkaku dekita kara, benkyō shita dake no koto wa atta.
I passed [the entrance examination to] that university, so the studying I did was worth it.

寺田だんは私のプレゼントを喜んでくれたので、無理して買っただけのことはあった。
Terada-san wa watashi no purezento o yorokonde kureta no de, muri shite katta dake no koto wa atta.
Since Terada was happy [pleased] with my present, it was worth all the trouble I went to in buying it.

b) When the result does not meet expectations and is therefore discouraging: “given the fact that.”

彼は彼女に夢中だっただけに、失恋のショックはとても大きかった。
Kare wa kanojo ni muchū datta dake ni, shitsuren no shokku wa totemo ōkikatta.
Given the fact that he was head over heels in love, losing her was a big blow.

一生懸命に勉強しただけに、不合格の通知を受け取ったとき、山本さんは非常にがっかりした。
Isshō-kenmei ni benkyō shita dake ni, fu-gōkaku no tsūchi o uke-totta toki, Yamamoto-san wa hijō ni gakkari shita.
Since he had studied so hard, Yamamoto was extremely disappointed when he received notification that he had failed. / Given the fact that he had studied so hard, Yamamoto was crushed when he learned that he had not been accepted.

c) When the outcome is seen as a natural result of foregoing conditions: “as you might expect.”

佐藤さんは英国の大学で勉強しただけあって、英語がうまいですね。
Satō-san wa Eikoku no daigaku de benkyō shita dake atte, Eigo ga umai desu ne.
As you might expect from his having studied at a university in England, Sato’s English is quite good.

ジョンさんは、京都に15年も住んでいるだけあって、お寺のことをよく知っています。
Jon-san wa, Kyōto ni jūgo-nen mo sunde iru dake atte, otera no koto o yoku shitte imasu.
As you might expect from his having lived in Kyoto for fifteen years, John is very knowledgeable about temples. / Since John has lived in Kyoto for fifteen years, it is not surprising that he knows a lot about temples.

一流のピアニストだけに、すばらしい演奏をしますね。
Ichiryū no pianisuto dake ni, subarashii ensō shimasu ne.
As you might expect of a first-rate pianist, he plays wonderfully, doesn’t he.

ここは北海道だけに、寒さが厳しいです。
Koko wa Hokkaido dake ni, samusa ga kibishii desu.
As you might expect from this being Hokkaido, it is terribly cold. / It is terribly cold here in Hokkaido, as you might expect.

4. “Not only … but also.”

Note: While bakari (#21, no. 2) may replace dake in this usage, it is slightly more emphatic.

原田さんはピアノだけでなく、歌もうまいんですよ。
Harada-san wa piano dake de naku, uta mo umai-n desu yo.
Harada is good not only at the piano but also at singing.

英語だけでなくフランス語も勉強したいんです。
Eigo dake de naku Furansu-go mo benkyō shitai-n desu.
I want to study not only English but French as well.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: のみ (nomi)

*1. After nouns, indicates that there is nothing other than the thing(s) stipulated : “only.”

Note: In this usage, nomi and dake have the same meaning, but nomi is used more in writing than in the spoken language. Nomi can be combined with (followed by) shika, as in the second sample sentence below.

この会議には、4つの国の代表のみが出席した。
Kono kaigi ni wa, yottsu no kuni no daihyō nomi ga shusseki shita.
The representatives of only four countries attended this conference.

以前、この大学には男性のみしか入れなかった。
Izen, kono daigaku ni wa dansei nomi shika hairenakatta.
In the past, only men were able to enter this university.

*2. Used in the form A nomi narazu B mo: “not only … but also.”

Note: This usage is essentially equivalent to bakari (#21, no. 2) and dake (#22, no. 4), but is found more in the written than in the spoken language.

この大学の文学部の学生は、英語のみならずフランス語も勉強しなければならない。
Kono daigaku no bungaku-bu no gakusei wa, Eigo nomi narazu Furansu-go mo benkyō shinakereba naranai.
The students in the literature department of this university must study not only English, but French as well.

シェークスピアは戯曲のみならず詩もたくさん書いた。
Shēkusupia wa gikyoku nomi narazu shi mo takusan kaita.
Shakespeare wrote not only plays, but many poems as well.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: しか (shika)

Note: Shika is used only with negative verbs. It may combine with (follow) dake, nomi, and kiri for further emphasis.

1. After nouns, indicates there is nothing more than the quantity specified, with the connotation that the quantity is small or unsatisfactory: “only, nothing but, merely.”

あの店には、この雑誌しかありませんでした。
Ano mise ni wa, kono zasshi shika arimasen deshita.
This was the only magazine at that store. / The only magazine that store had was this one.

今は1300円きりしか持っていないから、とてもフランス料理など食べられないよ。
Ima wa sen-sanbyaku-en kiri shika motte inai kara, totemo Furansu-ryōri nado taberarenai yo.
Since all I have at the moment is V1,300, there is no way I can [afford to] eat French food.

*2.After verbs, indicates a limit to the action stipulated by the verb: “there is no choice but, all one can do is.”

いやだけれど、出張だから行くしかない。
I ya da keredo, shuccho da kara iku shika nai.
I don’t want to, but since it’s company business [lit., a business trip], I can’t help but go [I have no choice).

このレポートは、明日までだから、今日中に終わらせるしかない。
Kono repōto wa, ashita made da kara, kyōchū ni owaraseru shika nai.
Since this report is due tomorrow, I have no choice but to finish it sometime today [will just to have to finish it sometime today).

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: ばかり (bakari)

Note: More informal forms of bakari are bakkari, bakashi, and bakkashi

1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast to kurai and hodo, bakari tends (but only tends) to focus on the smallness of the amount: “approximately, about.”

Note: Kurai (#19, no. 1) and hodo (#20, no. 1) may replace bakari in this usage.

明日から2ばかり旅行に行ってきます。
Ashita kara futsuka bakari ryokō ni itte kimasu.
Beginning tomorrow, I’ll be making a trip for a day or two. / Tomorrow I’ll be leaving on a trip for a couple of days.

1万円ばかり貸していただけませんか。
Ichi-man-en bakari kashite itadakemasen ka.
Could you lend me, say, something like ¥10,000?

2. “Not only … but also.”

Note: While dake (#22, no. 4) may replace bakari in this usage, bakari is slightly more emphatic.

原田さんはピアノばかりでなく、歌もうまいんですよ。
Harada-san wa piano bakari de naku, uta mo umai-n desu yo.
Harada is good not only at the piano but also at singing.

英語ばかりでなく、フランス語も勉強したいんです。
Eigo bakari de naku, Furansu-go mo benkyō shitai-n desu.
I want to study not only English but French as well.

3. Emphasizes the singularity of the immediately preceding word: “only, nothing but.”

Note: (1) Since the position of bakari in the sentence affects the meaning, several versions of one sentence have been given to exemplify the difference. In loose usage, however, bakari tends to shift from the word it is intended to modify, leaving the meaning to be gathered from context. (2) In this usage, bakari contains a degree of disapproval which lake does not.

課長はこの頃ウイスキーばかり飲んでいますね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukii bakari nonde imasu ne.
The section chief is drinking nothing but whiskey these days.

課長はこの頃ウイスキーを飲んでばかりいますね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukii o nonde bakari imasu ne.
The section chief is doing nothing but drink whiskey these days.

課長はこの頃ウイスキーを飲んでいるばかりですね。
Kachō wa konogoro uisukii o nonde iru bakari desu ne.
All the section chief does these days is drink whiskey.

テレビばかり見ていると目を悪くしますよ。
Terebi bakari mite iru to me o waruku shimasu yo.
If all you do is watch TV, you’ll ruin your eyes. / If you watch TV all the time, you’ll ruin your eyes.

Note: Here, terebi o mite iru bakari da to me o waruku shimasu yo is also possible (and grammatically more acceptable), but the example above is more common and has the same meaning.

4. Used after the – ta form of verbs: “just.”

Note: If tokoro (#38, no. 1) replaces bakari in this usage, the meaning is similar, but bakari shows more emphasis.

父は今帰ってきたばかりです。
Chichi wa ima kaette kita bakari desu.
My father just now came home [just got home).

順ちゃんは、ご飯を食べたばかりなのに、もうおやつを欲しがっています。
Jun-chan wa, gohan o tabeta bakari na no ni, mō oyatsu o hoshigatte imasu.
Even though Jun has just eaten a meal [just finished eating], he already wants a snack.

*5. Emphasizes a reason or cause in the phrase bakari ni; “(Just, merely) because, for the simple reason.”

渡辺さんはステレオを買いたいばかりに、一生懸命にアルバイトをしている。
Watanabe-san wa sutereo o kaitai bakari ni, isshō-kenmei ni arubaito o shite iru.
Watanabe is working like a dog at his part-time job for the simple reason that he wants to buy a stereo. / Watanabe wants to buy a stereo so badly that he is working for all he’s worth at his part-time job.

山田さんは政治家と結婚したばかりに、苦労している。
Yamada-san wa seiji-ka to kekkon shita bakari ni, kurō shite iru.
Simply because Yamada married a politician, she is having a hard time. / Just because she married [happened to marry] a politi-cian, Yamada is finding the going tough.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: ほど (hodo)

1. Indicates an approximate amount or approximate maximum extent; in contrast with kurai and bakari, hodo tends to stress approximate upper limit: “approximately, about.”

Note: Kurai (#19, no.1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace hodo in this usage, although hodo is somewhat more formal.

来月は、一週間ほど九州へ出張します。
Raigetsu wa, isshukan hodo Kyūshū e shuccho shimasu.
Next month I’ll be going on a business trip to Kyushu for as long as a week.

今度の事項で、100ほどの人が死んだそうです。
Kondo no jiko de, hyakunin hodo no hito ga shinda sou desu.
I hear that some 100 people died in this traffic accident.

2. Indicates a comparison (used only in negative sentences): “as … as.”

Note: Kurai may replace hodo in this usage, but hodo is more common.

今年は去年ほど寒くないです。
Kotoshi wa kyonen hodo samuku nai desu.
This year is not as cold as last year.

あの人ほど頭のいい人はいないでしょう。
Ano hito hodo atama no ii hito wa nai deshō.
No one has as good a head as he has. / No one is as smart as he is.

3. Indicates the extent of an action or condition by citing a specific example: “so … that, to the extent that.”

Note: This usage is similar to kurai (#19, no. 2).

今日は勉強ができないほど疲れた。
Kyo wa benkyō ga dekinai hodo tsukareta.
Today I’m so tired that I can’t study.

試験に合格したので、うれしくて眠れないほどです。
Shiken ni gōkaku shita no de, ureshikute nemurenai hodo desu.
Since I passed the examination, I’m so happy that I can’t sleep.

4. Used in the form V-ba + V hodo: “the more … the more.”

北へ行けば行くほど寒くなります。
Kita e ikeba iku hodo samuku narimasu.
The further north you go, the colder it gets.

年を取れば取るほど、体が弱くなります。
Toshi o toreba toru hodo, karada ga yowaku narimasu.
The older you get, the weaker your body becomes.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: くらい ‐ ぐらい (kurai – gurai)

1. Indicates an approximate amount or extent; in contrast with hodo and bakari, kurai denotes an approximate quantity without connoting its upper or lower limits: “approximately, about.”

Note: Hodo (#20, no. 1) and bakari (#21, no. 1) may replace kurai in this usage.

ここからその学校まで車30ぐらいかかります。
Koko kara sono gakkō made kuruma de sanjuppun gurai kakarimasu.
It takes about thirty minutes by car to get to the school from here.

昨日のパーティーに来た人は、100人ぐらいだったと思います。
Kinō no pātī ni kita hito wa, hyakunin gurai datta to omoimasu.
I think about 100 people came to the party yesterday.

2. Indicates the extent of an action or condition after a specific example is given: “so … that, to the extent that.”

Note: Hodo (#20, no. 3) may replace kurai/gurai in this usage.

安田さんの旅行の話は面白くて、時間のたつのも忘れたくらいだった。
Yasuda-san no ryokō no hanashi wa omoshirokute, jikan no tatsu no mo wasureta kurai datta.
Yasuda’s stories of her trip were so interesting that we lost track of time.

恥ずかしくて穴があったら入りたいぐらいだった。
Hazukashikute ana ga attara hairitai gurai datta.
I was so embarrassed that I felt like crawling in a hole. (Lit., … if there had been a hole, I would have wanted to go in it.)

3. Indicates a comparison: “as … as.”

Note: Hodo (#20, no. 2) may replace kurai/gurai in this usage.

山下さんの新しい家の庭は、ゴルフ場ぐらいの大きさだ。
Yamashita-san no atarashii ie no niwa wa, gorufu-jō gurai no ōkisa da.
The garden at Yamashita’s new house is as big as a golf course.

自分の家くらい、いい場所はない。
Jibun no ie kurai, ii basho wa nai.
There’s no place as nice as one’s own home.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: を (o)

1. Indicates the object of an action (direct object).

夕べは映画見た。
Yūbe wa eiga o mita.
I saw a movie yesterday evening.

原田さんは手紙書いている。
Harada-san wa tegami o kaite iru.
Harada is writing a letter.

2. Indicates the direct object of a passive verb.

私は昨日、電車の中でお金とパスポート盗まれました。
Watashi wa kinō, densha no naka de okane to pasupōto o nusumare-mashita.
I had my money and passport stolen in the train yesterday.

彼女は犬に手噛まれた。
Kanojo wa inu ni te o kamareta.
She had her hand bitten by a dog.

3. Indicates the person or thing made to do something in a causative sentence.

その政治家は、財界人のパーティーに秘書出席させた。
Sono seiji-ka wa, zaikai-jin no pātī ni hisho o shusseki saseta.
That politician had her secretary attend a business leaders’ party.

部長は部下出張させた。
Buchō wa buka o shutchō saseta.
The department head sent a subordinate on a business trip.

4. Indicates a specific occupation or position (usually followed by suru).

山本さんのお父さんは、医者している。
Yamamoto-san no otōsan wa, isha o shite iru.
Yamamoto’s father is a physician.

私の兄は、新聞記者しています。
Watashi no ani wa, shinbun-kisha o shite imasu.
My elder brother is a newspaper reporter.

5. Used with verbs indicating wishes or desires ending in -tai or -tagaru.

コーヒー飲みたいんです。
Kōhī o nomitai-n desu.
I want to drink some coffee.

ジョンさんはおすし食べたがっていますよ。
Jon-san wa osushi o tabetagatte imasu yo.
John feels like eating some sushi.

6. Indicates movement from a smaller to a larger place in both concrete and abstract senses.

Note: (1) Contrast with ni (#13, no. 4). (2) Although kara sounds correct from the standpoint of English, it should not be substituted for o in this usage.

a) Movement from a smaller physical space to a larger physical place (with the larger place usually implicit).

毎日新宿駅で地下鉄降ります。
Mainichi Shinjuku-eki de chikatetsu o orimasu.
I get off the subway at Shinjuku Station every day.

山本さんは夕方5時半に会社出ます。
Yamamoto-san wa yūgata goji-han ni kaisha o demasu.
Yamamoto leaves the office at 5:30 in the evening.

b) Movement from a smaller space in an abstract sense to a larger abstract space (e.g., from school life into society at large).

首相は早稲田大学卒業した。
Shushō wa Waseda daigaku o sotsugyō shita.
The prime minister graduated from Waseda University.

沖氏は、70歳になった年に経済界引退した。
Oki-shi wa, nanajussai ni natta toshi ni keizai-kai o intai shita.
Mr. Old retired from the business world when [in the year in which] he turned seventy.

7. When used with verbs of motion, indicates the place of the motion.

車で新しい橋渡った。
Kuruma de atarashii hashi o watatta.
I crossed over the new bridge by car.

私の国では、車は道の左側走ります。
Watashi no kuni de wa, kuruma wa michi no hidarigawa o hashi-rimasu.
In my country, cars drive on the left side of the road.

このバスは、デパートの前通りますか。
Kono basu wa, depāto no mae o tōrimasu ka.
Does this bus pass in front of the department store?

8. Indicates the starting point of an action.

社長は火曜日の午後6時に成田出発します。
Shachō wa kayobi no gogo rokuji ni Narita o shuppatsu shimasu.
The company president will leave from Narita at 6 P.M. on Tuesday.

この電車は8時に東京駅出ますから遅れないできてください。
Kono densha wa hachiji ni Tōkyō-eki o demasu kara okurenaide kite kudasai.
This train leaves Tokyo Station at eight o’clock, so please don’t be late.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: の (no)

I. Used between two nouns, indicating that the first possesses or is modifying the second; also used in place of ga to indicate the subject in modifying clauses.

1. Indicates possession: “‘s.”

これは高木さん傘です。
Kore wa Takagi-san no kasa desu.
This is Takagi’s umbrella.

それが佐藤さん車です。
Sore ga Satō-san no kuruma desu.
That is Sato’s car.

Note: If the context is understood, the second noun can be omitted:

それが佐藤さんです。
Sore ga Satō-san no desu.
That is Sato’s.

2. Indicates position or location.

上、いす下、学校前、この建物後ろ。
Tsukue no ue, isu no shita, gakkō no mae, kono tatemono no ushiro.
The top of the desk [i.e., on the desk]; under the chair; the [area in] front of the school; behind this building.

3. Indicates that the first noun is modifying the second in terms of kind or category.

山田先生は英語先生です。
Yamada-sensei wa Eigo no sensei desu.
Yamada is a teacher of English [an English teacher].

この学校は料理学校です。
Kono gakkō wa ryōri no gakkō desu.
This school is a cooking school.

4. Indicates that two nouns are in apposition.

K大学学長今井氏が演説をしています。
K daigaku gakuchō no Imai-shi ga enzetsu o shite imasu.
Mr. Imai, the president of K University, is making a speech.

こちらが佐山さんのお姉さん千香子さんです。
Kochira ga Sayama-san no onēsan no Chikako-san desu.
This is Chikako, Sayama’s elder sister.

5. Used to replace ga to indicate the subject of a clause modifying a noun.

これは坂本さん描いた油絵です。
Kore wa Sakamoto-san no kaita aburae desu.
This is the oil painting that Sakamoto painted.

昨日あなた話していたレストランはどこですか。
Kinō anata no hanashite ita resutoran wa doko desu ka.
Where is the restaurant you were talking about yesterday?

II. Used to nominalize verbs and adjectives.

1. Simple nominalizer: “-ing, what.”

天気が悪いですから、ドライブに行くはやめましょう。
Tenki ga warui desu kara, doraibu ni iku no wa yamemashō.
Since the weather is bad, let’s call off going for a drive.

外国語を学ぶは、難しいですね。
Gaikoku-go o manabu no wa, muzukashii desu ne.
Learning a foreign language is difficult, isn’t it.

彼女が欲しいは、新しいピアノです。
Kanojo ga hoshii no wa, atarashii piano desu.
What she wants is a new piano.

2. Used as a nominalizer before verbs of perception (e.g., mieru [to be visible], kikoeru [to be audible]).

このビルの屋上から、車が走っているがよく見えます。
Kono biru no okujō kara, kuruma ga hashitte iru no ga yoku miemasu.
From the roof [top] of this building, you can clearly see the cars going by. (Lit., … the driving cars are easily visible.)

女の人が歌っているが聞こえますね。
Onna no hito ga utatte iru no ga kikoemasu ne.
You can hear a woman singing, can’t you. (Lit., A woman’s singing is audible …)

III. Used at the end of sentences.

1. Indicates a question (colloquial usage).

会社、本当にやめる
Kaisha, honto ni yameru no.
You really quitting the company?

明日は何時に出かける
Ashita wa nanji ni dekakeru no.
What time you leaving tomorrow?

2. Imparts a softer tone to a statement (usually used by women).

私、来月フランスに留学する
Watashi, raigetsu Furansu ni ryūgaku suru no.
I will be going to France to study next month.

土曜日はコンサートに行きたいと思っている
Doyōbi wa konsāto ni ikitai to omotte iru no.
I’m thinking I’d like to go to a concert on Saturday.

*3. Indicates a mild command.

そんなこと言わない
Sonna koto iwanai no.
Don’t say such things. / Don’t say that.

あなたは黙っていればいい
Anata wa damatte ireba ii no.
You just keep quiet. (Lit., As for you, if you keep silent, it’s good.)

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: まで (made)

1. Indicates a time limitation for actions or events (often paired with kara): “until, till, to.”

この会社の社員は9時から5まで働きます。
Kono kaisha no shain wa kuji kara goji made hatarakimasu.
The employees of this company work from nine o’clock till five o’clock.

このデパートは、土曜日と日曜日は8までです。
Kono depāto wa, doyōbi to nichiyōbi wa hachiji made desu.
This department store is open until eight o’clock on Saturdays and Sundays.

2. Indicates the place to which an action extends (often paired with kara): “to.”

この飛行機は東京からホノルルまで行きます。
Kono hikōki wa Tōkyō kara Honoruru made ikimasu.
This plane goes from Tokyo to Honolulu.

ここから京都まで何時間かかりますか。
Koko kara Kyōto made nan-jikan kakarimasu ka.
How long does it take to get from here to Kyoto?

3. Indicates the degree of a condition by citing an example (e.g., it is not just cold, it is so cold that my glasses have frozen over): “even, so … that.”

子供だけでなく大人まで、そのゲームを楽しんだ。
Kodomo dake de naku otona made, sono gēmu o tanoshinda.
Not only the children but even the adults enjoyed [playing] that game.

その日山の上はとても寒くて、夕方には雪まで降ってきた。
Sono hi yama no ue wa totemo samukute, yūgata ni wa yuki made futte kita.
The top of the mountain was very cold that day; it even started snowing in the evening. / The mountaintop was so cold that day that it even started to snow in the evening.

*4. Indicates an extreme condition.

斎藤さんは、あの男の人と結婚できなければ死のうとまで思いつめたそうです。
Saitō-san wa, ano otoko no hito to kekkon dekinakereba shinō to made omoitsumeta sō desu.
Saito was apparently even contemplating suicide if she were unable to marry the man.

その両親は子供の病気が治るなら、全財産を捨ててもいいとまで考えていた。
Sono ryōshin wa kodomo no byōki ga naoru nara, zen-zaisan o sutete mo ii to made kangaete ita.
If their child would only get well, the parents thought that they would even sacrifice all they owned. / The child’s parents were [even] prepared to sacrifice all they owned if only he/she would recover.

*5. At the end of a sentence, indicates a limitation or extent: “that is all.”

今日はここまで
Kyō wa koko made.
That’s all for today. (Lit., As for today, up to here.)

とりあえずご報告まで
Toriaezu go hōkoku made.
For your reference. (Lit., For the moment, as far as a report.)

*6. In the form made mo nai (which follows verb roots), emphasizes extent or degree; the complete phrase may be translated: “there is no need to.”

明日のパーティーはわざわざ行くまでもない。
Ashita no pātī ni wa wazawaza iku made mo nai.
There is no need to go out of one’s way [to make a special effort] to attend tomorrow’s party. / Tomorrow’s party is hardly worth going to.

言うまでもないことですが、この会社の経営状態は、かなり悪化しています。
lu made mo nai koto desu ga, kono kaisha no keiei-jōtai wa, kanari akka shite imasu.
Needless to say [it goes without saying that], this company’s oper-ations have deteriorated considerably.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words

All About Japanese Particles: から (kara)

I. Follows nouns and the -te form of verbs: “from.”

1. After nouns, indicates the time at which something begins: “from, at.”

銀行は9から開いています。
Ginkō wa kuji kara aite imasu.
Banks are open from nine o’clock. / Banks open at nine.

日本語のクラスは、1から4時までです。
Nihongo no kurasu wa, ichiji kara yoji made desu.
Japanese class lasts from one to four o’clock.

2. After nouns, indicates the place from which something begins: “from, at.”

マラソンはここから出発します。
Marason wa koko kara shuppatsu shimasu.
The marathon starts [from] here.

社長はパリから飛行機でスペインへ行きます。
Shachō wa Pari kara hikōki de Supein e ikumasu.
The company president will go from Paris to Spain by plane.

*3. Certain idiomatic usages in which figurative references to place are made.

新聞をすみからすみまで読んだ。
Shinbun o sumi kara sumi made yonda.
I read the newspaper from beginning to end. (Lit, … from corner to corner.)

女の人の目から見れば、日本にはまだ差別がたくさんある。
Onna no hito no me kara mireba, Nihon ni wa mada sabetsu ga takusan aru.
From a woman’s viewpoint, there is still a lot of discrimination in Japan. (Lit., Looking from a woman’s eyes …)

4. After the -te form of verbs, indicates that an action begins immediately after the previous one ends: “after.”

昨日私は仕事が終わってから買物をしました。
Kinō watashi wa shigoto ga owatte kara kaimono o shimashita.
Yesterday I went shopping after finishing work.

明日の夜、食事をしてから映画を見ませんか。
Ashita no yoru, shokuji o shite kara eiga o mimasen ka.
How about seeing a movie tomorrow night after [having] dinner?

5. After the -te form of verbs, indicates the passage of time: “since, for.”

山田さんが大学を卒業してから5年になります。
Yamada-san ga daigaku o sotsugyō shite kara gonen ni narimasu.
Five years have passed since Yamada graduated from college.

あの二人が結婚してから20年だそうです。
Ano futari ga kekkon shite kara nijuu-nen da sō desu.
I understand that it is twenty years since those two were married. / I hear that those two have been married for twenty years.

6. Indicates materials used: “from.”

Note: Kara and de (#12, no. 3) are similar in usage. However, the former tends to accompany materials that are the result of a somewhat complex process, whereas the latter is generally used with materials that retain, or appear to retain, their original state, such as wood, rock, leather, paper, and glass.

ワインはぶどうから作ります。
Wain wa budō kara tsukurimasu.
Wine is made from grapes.

豆腐は何から作るか知っていますか。
Tōfu wa nani kara tsukuru ka shitte imasu ka.
Do you know what tofu is made from?

7. Indicates the agent of a passive verb (the person or thing per-forming the action): “by.”

Note: The agent of a passive verb is usually indicated by ni, but kara may replace ni, with no basic change in meaning, when (1) the noun preceding kara can be perceived more as the source of an action than as its agent and (2) when kara makes the meaning clearer by avoiding a repetition of ni (as the first example below). Examples of other verbs in conjunction with which kara can replace ni are ai suru (to love), kiku (to ask), meirei suru, shikaru (to scold), shiraberu (to examine).

私は大使からパーティーに招待されました。
Watashi wa taishi kara pātī ni shōtai saremashita.
I was invited to a party by the ambassador.

昨日課長から叱られた。
Kinō kachō kara shikarareta.
I was scolded by the section chief yesterday.

II . Follows verbs and adjectives to indicate a cause or reason: “since, because.”

1. Indicates a cause or reason: “since, because.”

Note: Kara can be replaced by no de (#26) in this usage. In general, (1) kara dicates a more subjective reason, no de a more objective one; and (2) no de softer and more polite than kara.

忙しかったから私たちは公園へ行きませんでした。
Isogashikatta kara watashi-tachi wa kōen e ikimasen deshita.
We didn’t go to the park because we were too busy.

あのレストランは安いからいつも混んでいます。
Ano resutoran wa yasui kara itsu urn konde imasu.
That restaurant is inexpensive, so it’s always crowded.

*2. Used trailingly at the end of a sentence, indicates censure or warning to the listener: “so you had better.”

そんなことばかり言っているとみんなに嫌われるから。。。
Sonna koto bakari itte iru to minna ni kirawareru kara …
If you say only those kinds of things, you’re going to be disliked by everyone [so stop saying them]. / If you keep saying things like that, people aren’t going to like it.

勉強しないと試験に合格できないから。。。
Benkyō shinai to shiken ni gōkaku dekinai kara …
If you don’t study, you won’t be able to pass the exam [so you had better study].

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words