Japanese Particle Workbook

[Japanese grammar books]

Particles are an essential component of the Japanese language, and a facility with their use is essential for a mastery of both spoken and written forms. This new workbook will help students acquire that facility. It introduces 60 particles and their 188 basic functions in order of frequency of usage. Each function is illustrated with example sentences, and exercises are presented every few lessons to allow users to test their understanding, writing directly in the workbook and checking their work against the answers provided. A basic vocabulary is employed throughout to allow students to concentrate fully on one important goal—the mastery of Japanese particles.


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How to Tell the Difference between Japanese Particles

[Japanese grammar books]

<By grouping particles that are similar in function, this book helps students pin down differences in usage that would ordinarily take years to master. Definitions, sample sentences, usage notes, and quizzes enable students to move to a higher level of comprehension.


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A Dictionary of Japanese Particles

[Japanese grammar books]

For English-speaking students of Japanese, particles are perhaps the most difficult aspect of the language to learn. It would be no exaggeration to say that, for most people, they can never be completely mastered. Thus, the study of particles is a lifetime undertaking, and students need a lifelong companion to help them along the way. That companion is A Dictionary of Japanese Particles.


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Particle types in Japanese

Particle types in Japanese

It is possible to classify particles into case particles, focus particles, conjunctional particles, and sentence-final particles.

Particle types in Japanese

1. Case particles

Case particles usually follow nouns and express the function of the noun in the sentence or in the phrase. More specifically, they express the relationship between nouns, or between a noun and a verb or an adjective. Case particles include ga, o, ni, no, de, e, kara, made, to, ya, and ka.

ちちおとうとしかりました。
Chichi ga otōto o shikarimashita.
My father scolded my little brother.

友達ともだちいもうと来ました。
Watashi no tomodachi no imōto ga kimashita.
My friend’s younger sister came (here).

2. Focus particles

Focus particles follow words and another particle in order to focus on the entity denoted by the word and express sentence-external information such as the speaker’s knowledge, understanding, mood, attitude, and perspective. Focus particles include wa, mo, bakari, sae, demo, dake, shika, shi, and koso.

カラオケによく行きます。 居酒屋いざかやよく行きます。
Karaoke ni wa yoku ikimasu. Izakaya ni mo yoku ikimasu.
I go to karaoke very often. I also go to izakaya very often.

一万円しかありません。
Ichiman’en shika arimasen.
I have only 10,000 yen.

3. Conjunctional particles

Conjunctional particles follow phrases and clauses and conjoin verbs and adjectives or create adverbial phrases/clauses. Conjunctional particles include te, tari, tara, to, ka, ba, node, noni, kara, and ga.

昨日きのう飲んました。
Kinō wa tabete nonde nemashita.
I ate, drank, and slept yesterday.

明日の天気てんきはどうわかりません、たぶんれる思います。
Ashita no tenki wa dō ka wakarimasen ga, tabun hareru to omoimasu.
I’m not sure about tomorrow’s weather, but I think that it will probably be fine.

タバコは身体しんたいわるのでやめました。
Tabako wa karada ni warui node, yamemashita.
Cigarettes are not good for health, so I quit.

4. Sentence-final particles

Sentence-final particles are placed at the end of a sentence and specify the function of the sentence or show the speaker’s mood, attitude, or subtle implications. Sentence-final particles include ka, ne, yo, and na.

いいです
Ii desu ka. (question)
Is it okay?

あの人はきれいです
Ano hito wa kirei desu ne. (seeking agreement)
That person is pretty, isn’t she?

これは駄目だめです
Kore wa dame desu yo. (emphasis)
This one is not good.

あめかな
Ame wa furu kana. (speculation)
I wonder whether it will rain.

MASAHIRO TANIMORI – ERIKO SATO