in Blog

All About Japanese Particles: まで (made)

[Serie: All About Japanese Particles]

1. Indicates a time limitation for actions or events (often paired with kara): “until, till, to.”

Kono kaisha no shain wa kuji kara goji made hatarakimasu.
The employees of this company work from nine o’clock till five o’clock.

Kono depāto wa, doyōbi to nichiyōbi wa hachiji made desu.
This department store is open until eight o’clock on Saturdays and Sundays.

2. Indicates the place to which an action extends (often paired with kara): “to.”

Kono hikōki wa Tōkyō kara Honoruru made ikimasu.
This plane goes from Tokyo to Honolulu.

Koko kara Kyōto made nan-jikan kakarimasu ka.
How long does it take to get from here to Kyoto?

3. Indicates the degree of a condition by citing an example (e.g., it is not just cold, it is so cold that my glasses have frozen over): “even, so … that.”

Kodomo dake de naku otona made, sono gēmu o tanoshinda.
Not only the children but even the adults enjoyed [playing] that game.

Sono hi yama no ue wa totemo samukute, yūgata ni wa yuki made futte kita.
The top of the mountain was very cold that day; it even started snowing in the evening. / The mountaintop was so cold that day that it even started to snow in the evening.

*4. Indicates an extreme condition.

Saitō-san wa, ano otoko no hito to kekkon dekinakereba shinō to made omoitsumeta sō desu.
Saito was apparently even contemplating suicide if she were unable to marry the man.

Sono ryōshin wa kodomo no byōki ga naoru nara, zen-zaisan o sutete mo ii to made kangaete ita.
If their child would only get well, the parents thought that they would even sacrifice all they owned. / The child’s parents were [even] prepared to sacrifice all they owned if only he/she would recover.

*5. At the end of a sentence, indicates a limitation or extent: “that is all.”

Kyō wa koko made.
That’s all for today. (Lit., As for today, up to here.)

Toriaezu go hōkoku made.
For your reference. (Lit., For the moment, as far as a report.)

*6. In the form made mo nai (which follows verb roots), emphasizes extent or degree; the complete phrase may be translated: “there is no need to.”

Ashita no pātī ni wa wazawaza iku made mo nai.
There is no need to go out of one’s way [to make a special effort] to attend tomorrow’s party. / Tomorrow’s party is hardly worth going to.

lu made mo nai koto desu ga, kono kaisha no keiei-jōtai wa, kanari akka shite imasu.
Needless to say [it goes without saying that], this company’s oper-ations have deteriorated considerably.

– Source: All about particles – A handbook of Japanese function words


Write a Comment