1a-b. か (ka)
2. かな (kana)
3. かしら (kashira)
4. の (no)
5. って (tte)
Indicates a question at the end of a sentence. Its tone has the politeness expected in everyday conversation with strangers or social superiors, in contrast to the casualness indicated by particles 2, 5.
Yamamoto: How is work going these days?
Takeshita: Not as smoothly as before.
Kyoko: Who won yesterday’s game?
Naomi: The A team, of course.
1b. か (ka)
Indicating a question, doubt, or uncertainty in mid-sentence.
Maybe I’ve caught a cold—I’ve had a sore throat today since morning.
I don’t know how many people are coming to tomorrow’s gathering.