Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

1. て (te)

2. で (de)

3. から (kara)

4. ので (node)

5. もので (mono de)

1. て (te)

As the connection between two clauses, the て form of adjectives and verbs can indicate a reason at the end of the first clause in a sentence. Note that the て form can also mean “and” (see here). Telling the difference depends on reading the context correctly. English equivalents:‘because,” “since,” “so.”

i) みちんでい、6時までに空港くうこうくのは無理むりだ。

The roads are crowded, so it’s impossible to get to the airport by 6:00.

ii) あそこはいまゆきおおあるいていけませんよ。

Right now the snow is heavy there, so you can’t go (get there) on foot.

2. で (de)

Following nouns, indicates that the noun is the reason for the situation given in the following verb. で can sometimes be made softer in tone by converting it into ので (4) or more direct by replacing it with から (3). English equivalent: “due to”, “owing to”, “because of”…

i) はやしさんは、病気びょうき先週せんしゅうから会社かいしゃやすんでいます。

Because Hayashi-san has been ill, he has been away from the office since last week. 

ii) 今朝けさは、事故じこ電車でんしゃが1時間じかんまった。

This morning, due to an accident, the train stopped running for a whole hour. 

3. から (kara)

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Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Question or Uncertainty

1a-b. か (ka)

2. かな (kana)

3. かしら (kashira)

4. の (no)

5. って (tte)

1a. か (ka)

Indicates a question at the end of a sentence. Its tone has the politeness expected in everyday conversation with strangers or social superiors, in contrast to the casualness indicated by particles 2, 5.

i)

山本:最近さいきん仕事しごとはいかがいです

竹下:以前いぜんほど順調じゅんちょうではないですね。

Yamamoto: How is work going these days?

Takeshita: Not as smoothly as before.

ii)

京子:昨日きのう試合しあい、どっちがったんです

直美:もちろんAチームですよ。

Kyoko: Who won yesterday’s game?

Naomi: The A team, of course.

1b. か (ka)

Indicating a question, doubt, or uncertainty in mid-sentence.

i)

今日きょう風邪かぜいたのあさからのどがいたい。

Maybe I’ve caught a cold—I’ve had a sore throat today since morning.

ii)

明日あした会合かいごう何人なんにんるの、わからない。

I don’t know how many people are coming to tomorrow’s gathering.

2. かな (kana)

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Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

Japanese Particles that Indicate Direction

1.に/へ (ni/e)

2.から (kara)

3.から…まで (kara…made)

4.より (yori)

1.に/へ (ni/e)

Indicates the direction toward which something is moving. In this sense に and へ are  interchangeable . English equivalent: “to.”

i) あるいてえききます。

I will walk to the station.

ii) 銀座ぎんざに/へくには、地下鉄ちかてつ便利べんりでしょう。

The subway is probably most convenient to go to Ginza.

iii) 柳田やなぎださんメールをおくった。

I sent an email to Yanagida-san.

iv) 明日あした何時なんじ空港くうこう行けばいいんですか。

What time should I be at (go to) the airport tomorrow?

2.から (kara)

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Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

1. と (to)

2. も (mo)

3. も…も (mo…mo)

4. や

5. や…や…など (ya…ya…nado)

6. に (ni)

7. とか (toka)

8. やら (yara)

9. て (te)

10a-b. たり…たり (-tari…-tari)

11. ては (tewa)

1. と (to)

Indicates a connection between nouns that form a list of two or more items.  The list is complete ; that is, there are no other items that could be added to it (which contrasts to some of the other particles given in this section, which present partial lists that could be added to if the speaker chose to do so). に (6) is similar to と in that it presents a complete list, but it has a more formal sound to it. English equivalent “and.”

i) 教室きょうしつには先生せんせい生徒せいとがいます。

There are students and a teacher in the classroom.

ii) 大統領だいとうりょう副大統領ふくだいとうりょうがその会議かいぎ出席しゅっせきした。

The President and the Vice President attended that meeting.

2. も (mo)

Indicates that the noun it follows is connected (or similar) in some way to something else already mentioned. The first item was not followed by も; the second item is. Compare this with も• • •も (3), where both of the items to be mentioned are given in the same sentence and each is followed by も. English equivalent: “also,” “too.”

i) 山田やまださんは、来月らいげつ米国べいこくきます。私ちかいうちにくつもりです。

Yamada-san is going to the United States next month. I also plan to go before long.

ii)

弘子:明日のコンサート、香来るの?

美穂:香は来ないわ。

Hiroko: Is Kaori also coming to the concert tomorrow?

Miho: No, she won’t be coming.

3. も…も (mo…mo)

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Japanese Particles Indicating Place

japanese particles indicating place

japanese particles indicating place

1. で (de)

2. に (ni)

3. の (no)

4. へ/に (he/ni)

1. で (de)

Indicates the place  where an action takes place . Compare this with に (2c), which has a similar function with a limited number of verbs. English equivalent: “at,” “in.”

i) 毎日まいにち朝食ちょうしょくいえべます。

I eat breakfast at home every day.

ii) 山田やまださんは、銀座ぎんざのデパートはたらいています。

Yamada-san works at a department store in Ginza.

iii) 第1回目だいいっかいめのオリンピックは、ギリシャひらかれました。

The first Olympiad was held in Greece.

で (de) is also used when the place referred to is not a physical location (e.g., a conference room) so much as an occasion or situation (e.g, a conference).

i) 田村たむら議員ぎいんが、議会ぎかい質問しつもんした。

Assembly-person Tamura asked a question in the Assembly/Parliament.

ii) 私は、あの会社の面接めんせつ、うまくこたえられなかったので、入社にゅうしゃできないかもしれない。

At the employment interview for that company, I wasn’t able to answer the questions very well, so I may not be accepted (may not be able to join the company).

2a. に (ni)

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Japanese Particles Indicating Time

Japanese Particles Indicating Time

Japanese Particles Indicating Time

1. に (ni)

2. から (kara)

3. まで

4. までに

5. から…まで (kara … made)

6. より (yori)

7. ほど (hodo)

8. くらい, ぐらい (kurai, gurai)

9. ころ, ごろ (koro, goro)

10. ばかり (bakari)

1. に (ni)

Used after words indicating the  specific point in time  (e.g., “three o’clock”) at which—or a  interval  (e.g., “one week”) during which—an action takes place. English equivalent: “at.”

i) 明日あした会議会議は3時はじまります。

Tomorrow’s meeting will start at 3:00.

 ii) 1週間しゅうかん1かいピアノのレッスンにきます。

I go to have a piano lesson once a week.

Some words that indicate time do not take に (ni). For example,

Days (): yesterday (昨日きのう), today (今日きょう), tomorrow (明日あした)

Weeks (しゅう): last week (先週せんしゅう), this week (今週こんしゅう), next week (来週らいしゅう)

Months (つき): last month (先月せんげつ), this month (今月こんげつ), next month (来月らいげつ)

   i) 今週こんしゅうさむおおい。

There have been a lot of cold days this week.

  ii) 来月らいげつ海外旅行かいがいりょこうく。

I’m going to make a trip abroad next month.

Some words indicating time can either take に (ni) or not take it. For example,

Seasons (季節きせつ): spring (はる), summer (なつ),  fall (あき), winter (ふゆ)

   i) ふゆは東京に行きますが、なつにハワイに行きます。

I’ll be in Tokyo in winter, but I will go to Hawaii in summer.

  ii) 去年きょねんあき韓国かんこくにいました。

I was in Korea last fall.

2. から(kara)

Indicates

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