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Japanese Particles Indicating Place

japanese particles indicating place

1. で (de)

2. に (ni)

3. の (no)

4. へ/に (he/ni)

1. で (de)

Indicates the place  where an action takes place . Compare this with に (2c), which has a similar function with a limited number of verbs. English equivalent: “at,” “in.”

i) 毎日まいにち朝食ちょうしょくいえべます。

I eat breakfast at home every day.

ii) 山田やまださんは、銀座ぎんざのデパートはたらいています。

Yamada-san works at a department store in Ginza.

iii) 第1回目だいいっかいめのオリンピックは、ギリシャひらかれました。

The first Olympiad was held in Greece.

で (de) is also used when the place referred to is not a physical location (e.g., a conference room) so much as an occasion or situation (e.g, a conference).

i) 田村たむら議員ぎいんが、議会ぎかい質問しつもんした。

Assembly-person Tamura asked a question in the Assembly/Parliament.

ii) 私は、あの会社の面接めんせつ、うまくこたえられなかったので、入社にゅうしゃできないかもしれない。

At the employment interview for that company, I wasn’t able to answer the questions very well, so I may not be accepted (may not be able to join the company).

2a. に (ni)

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