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Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

Japanese Particles Showing Connections between Words

1. と (to)

2. も (mo)

3. も…も (mo…mo)

4. や

5. や…や…など (ya…ya…nado)

6. に (ni)

7. とか (toka)

8. やら (yara)

9. て (te)

10a-b. たり…たり (-tari…-tari)

11. ては (tewa)

1. と (to)

Indicates a connection between nouns that form a list of two or more items.  The list is complete ; that is, there are no other items that could be added to it (which contrasts to some of the other particles given in this section, which present partial lists that could be added to if the speaker chose to do so). に (6) is similar to と in that it presents a complete list, but it has a more formal sound to it. English equivalent “and.”

i) 教室きょうしつには先生せんせい生徒せいとがいます。

There are students and a teacher in the classroom.

ii) 大統領だいとうりょう副大統領ふくだいとうりょうがその会議かいぎ出席しゅっせきした。

The President and the Vice President attended that meeting.

2. も (mo)

Indicates that the noun it follows is connected (or similar) in some way to something else already mentioned. The first item was not followed by も; the second item is. Compare this with も• • •も (3), where both of the items to be mentioned are given in the same sentence and each is followed by も. English equivalent: “also,” “too.”

i) 山田やまださんは、来月らいげつ米国べいこくきます。私ちかいうちにくつもりです。

Yamada-san is going to the United States next month. I also plan to go before long.

ii)

弘子:明日のコンサート、香来るの?

美穂:香は来ないわ。

Hiroko: Is Kaori also coming to the concert tomorrow?

Miho: No, she won’t be coming.

3. も…も (mo…mo)

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