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Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

Japanese Particles that Indicate a Reason or Cause

1. て (te)

2. で (de)

3. から (kara)

4. ので (node)

5. もので (mono de)

1. て (te)

As the connection between two clauses, the て form of adjectives and verbs can indicate a reason at the end of the first clause in a sentence. Note that the て form can also mean “and” (see here). Telling the difference depends on reading the context correctly. English equivalents:‘because,” “since,” “so.”

i) みちんでい、6時までに空港くうこうくのは無理むりだ。

The roads are crowded, so it’s impossible to get to the airport by 6:00.

ii) あそこはいまゆきおおあるいていけませんよ。

Right now the snow is heavy there, so you can’t go (get there) on foot.

2. で (de)

Following nouns, indicates that the noun is the reason for the situation given in the following verb. で can sometimes be made softer in tone by converting it into ので (4) or more direct by replacing it with から (3). English equivalent: “due to”, “owing to”, “because of”…

i) はやしさんは、病気びょうき先週せんしゅうから会社かいしゃやすんでいます。

Because Hayashi-san has been ill, he has been away from the office since last week. 

ii) 今朝けさは、事故じこ電車でんしゃが1時間じかんまった。

This morning, due to an accident, the train stopped running for a whole hour. 

3. から (kara)

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